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SHOULDER MUSCLES AND THEIR INJURIES
       
 

MUSCLES OF THE SHOULDER AND THE ACTIONS:
HUMERUS MOVER MUSCLES: Prime movers pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, deltoid.
ROTATOR CUFF MUSCLES; supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis,
SCAPULA MOVERS MUSCLES:
PROTRACTORS: Pectoralis major , pectoralis minor, serratus anterior
RETRACTORS: trapezius, rhomboids
ELEVATORS: levator scapula, trapezius

CONDITIONS: pectoralis minor entrapment, thoracic outlet syndrome, rotator cuff injuries,

COMMENTS: The shoulder can be divided into two functional groups. One group is the muscles that move the humerus in relationship to the scapula. All the muscles that support this "gleno-humeral" joint are called the rotator cuff muscles, and they all originate from the scapula and insert on the head of the humerus. Supraspinatus abducts, Infraspinatus and teres minor externally rotate, Subscapularis internally rotates.

The other grouping of muscles are those that position the scapula on the rib cage. These muscles originate from the rib cage and spine and insert on the scapula or humerus. When people complain of mid to upper back pain it is usually related to these shoulder moving muscles. The deeper neck muscles have their root in the upper back as well.

INJURY: Impingments, tendonitis, instability syndrome, adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder).   Bicipiotal tendonitis. Thoracic outlet syndrome.

IMBALANCE: Muscles that tend to be short and tight and easily facilitated: Pectoralis major and minor, upper trapezius, subscapularis, and levator scapula. Overdevelopment of the pectoralis, and the subscapularis result in a protracted scapula and a stretch weakness of the rhomboids and the middle trapezius. Muscles that tend to be inhibited long and weak: lower trapezius, rhomboids, and serratus anterior, supraspinatus, infraspinatus and teres minor. Weakness in the scapular stabilizing muscles allows lateral sliding of the scapula and external rotation stressing the anterior joint and contributing to impingment. This is a called an Upper Cross Syndrome.

ASSESSMENT: Visual Postural Assessment. Range of movement tests. Muscle strength comparisons. Electronic Biofeedback using E.M.G.

MASSAGE: Muscle Energy Techniques, Deep Tissue Massage, Myofascial Release to anterior. Soft Tissue Release to external and internal rotators.

CORRECTIVE EXERCISE/STRETCHING: Stretching to over tight muscles using specific stretching techniques and exercises. Special treatment protocols for shoulder strengthening, using medicine ball/rubber band stabilizing routines.